Teacher Education and ESOL, Dr. Jodi Crandall


  1. Introduction
    1. About Dr. Jodi Crandall
      1. Professor of Education at the University of Maryland Baltimore County
      2. Co-director of M.A. Program in ESOL/Bilingual Education
      3. Director of interdisciplinary doctoral program in Language, Literacy, and Culture
      4. 20 years of experience in ESOL
    2. Overview of the Presentation
      1. Changing demographics in schools
      2. Approaches taken to meet the challenges
      3. Teacher education
      4. Innovative approaches
    3. Challenges for Teacher Educators
      1. Standards
      2. Accountability
      3. Changing paradigms
      4. Social responsibilities of teachers
      5. Restricted resources
      6. Increasing diversity
    4. Unprecedented Challenges
      1. Diversity of US schools
      2. Schools are more diverse now than they have ever been
        1. 1 in 15 Americans was born outside of the United States
        2. 1 in 7 students comes from a non English speaking Tapestry Home environment
        3. 1 in 3 students is a member of a racial or ethnic minority
      3. This diversity is a resource, but also a challenge
    5. Challenges to Teachers and Teacher Educators
      1. ESOL population doubled from 1985-1995
      2. 4% rise in school age population
      3. 50% increase in English language learners
    6. Not Just a City Problem
      1. 50% of all public school teachers have at least one language minority student in their class
      2. Latinos are the fastest growing minority
        1. close to 25% of school age population
      3. Mosaic of languages, cultures, races, and ethnicities
    7. Diversity—Constantly Changing and Becoming More Diverse
      1. Influx of students from:
        1. South East Asia
        2. Eastern and Central Europe
        3. Haiti and Cuba
        4. Central America
        5. Somalia, Iraq, Bosnia
    8. Sources of Diversity
      1. Not only racial, ethnic, or linguistic, but also:
        1. Prior education
        2. Literacy background
        3. Expectations about schooling and education
        4. Learning style preferences
    9. The Double Challenge
      1. Students with little or no education/literacy have to:
        1. learn English
        2. become literate
        3. master other content areas
      2. Even more challenging for students who arrive in middle school and high school
    10. Adult education
      1. Similar situation
        1. About 50% of students in federally funded adult education are in ESOL
        2. Percentage of ESOL students is constantly increasing
      2. In colleges and universities there is also a substantial percentage of bilingual students
      3. This situation is here to stay
    11. The Worldwide Impact of English
      1. Today English is the language of International commerce, communication, travel industry, information exchange, science and technology, medicine, etc.
      2. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is introduced earlier and earlier in the curriculum of many foreign countries
      3. Increasing number of bilingual schools
      4. English as medium of instruction at the university level
    12. Guiding Questions
      1. How can schools accommodate diverse student population?
      2. What do teacher educator need to know?
    13. Bilingual Education
      1. Develop literacy, numeracy and academic concepts in the native language
      2. Learn English as a Second Language
      3. Transfer information to English-medium classroom
      4. Two kinds of bilingual Education
        1. Early Exit/transitional
        2. Late Exit/maintenance
      5. Early Exit/transitional—3 years
        1. native language instruction
        2. ESOL classes
        3. Some English language instruction
        4. Transition into all-English classrooms
      6. Late Exit/maintenance
        1. At least 6 years of bilingual education
        2. Maintain and develop native language
      7. Learn English as well as students in English-only programs
      8. More able to succeed academically, due to native language support
  2. Program Models
    1. ESOL Programs
      1. Specially designed programs for English Language Learners
      2. Develop social and academic language and literacy
      3. Necessary component for all ESOL students
    2. Content-Based Language Instruction
      1. Classes taught by language teachers
      2. Themes and concepts from other content areas
      3. Focus on language and academic skills
      4. Teaching English as it relates to different academic disciplines
    3. Sheltered Instruction
      1. Content area teachers adapt instruction to accommodate wide variety of students
      2. Accommodating different levels of:
        1. English language proficiency
        2. Prior knowledge
        3. Classroom expectations
      3. Accommodations are helpful to all students
    4. Thematic Instruction
      1. Organized around a particular theme
      2. Teams agree on a theme, for example "change"
      3. Characteristics helpful for ESOL students:
        1. Fewer vocabulary items
        2. More frequent repetition
        3. Integration of knowledge—making connections
    5. Adjunct/Paired Approach
      1. ESOL students participate in regular classes
      2. Coupled with an ESOL course to prepare for the class
        1. Focus on language demands (reading and writing)
      3. Grading:
        1. Conceptual Knowledge by content area teacher
        2. Language and literacy development by ESOL teacher
    6. Team Teaching/Inclusion
      1. Co-teaching by ESOL and content area teachers
        1. Allows ESOL students to succeed in the regular curriculum
      2. ESOL and content area teachers learn from each other
      3. Students still need pull-out ESOL classes
        1. ESOL students need the extra time to focus on language development
    7. Newcomer Programs
      1. Special schools or programs
      2. Orientation to English language and American culture
      3. Sheltered instruction
      4. Content-based instruction
      5. Give newcomers a sheltered space to acclimate
    8. Dual Language/Immersion/Dual Language Developmental Bilingual Education
      1. Large populations of students with same native language
      2. Program starts in Kindergarten with equal numbers of native English speakers and native Spanish speakers
        1. native speakers of English learn Spanish as a foreign language
        2. native speakers of Spanish learn English as a foreign language
        3. For all students, some content is taught in English, some in Spanish
        4. Use of Spanish will decrease over the course of 6 years
      3. Results:
        1. Students perform at or above grade level in both languages
        2. Understanding about Cultural diversity
        3. Tolerant and accepting of difference
      4. Models are not mutually exclusive, but generally co-exist
  3. Challenges
    1. The Myth of the Homogeneous Classroom
      1. Classrooms are heterogeneous
      2. Yet, traditional Teacher Education Programs prepare teachers for a student population that is:
        1. white, middle class, and has certain values and expectations
      3. The majority of today's teachers are:
        1. White, English speaking
        2. Increasingly middle-aged or beyond
        3. Female
    2. Growing Gap of experiences and expectations between teachers and students
      1. While student populations become more diverse, teacher population is becoming less diverse
        1. 1990: 30% of students were minorities, 21% of teachers
        2. 2000: 38% of students, less than 10% of teachers
        3. The gap is growing
      2. Teachers need to become more familiar with and understanding of minority students
    3. Lack of Training with ESOL Students
      1. 1994: only 28% of school teachers had any training for teaching ESOL students
      2. Situation is better in Florida due to the Consent Decree:
        1. Requires in-services
        2. Includes ESOL in the teacher education programs
      3. Overall, more ESOL education is necessary
    4. Cooperation Between ESOL and Content Areas Teachers
      1. ESOL Bilingual Teachers
        1. Have theoretical knowledge and practical experience
        2. Can assist content area teachers with ESOL students
        3. But they lack content area specific knowledge
      2. Content Area teachers
        1. Have that knowledge
        2. But need to learn to adapt instructions for ESOL students
      3. Both have critical knowledge, skills, and dispositions
  4. Teacher Education
    1. Knowledge Skills and Dispositions

      Teachers need to know about:

      1. First and Second Language Acquisition
      2. Cross-cultural communication about and interaction with Tapestry Home life, community
      3. Strategies for adapting instructions and materials
      4. Appropriate assessment
    2. First and Second Language Acquisition
      1. Importance of Bilingual Education
      2. Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis (Jim Cummins)
        1. Transfer of knowledge from L1 to L2 - given sufficient linguistic competence
        2. Common core of understanding
        3. Language is necessary to talk about it
      3. The higher the level education in L1, the more knowledge can be transferred
      4. It is possible to learn English via other content areas
      5. Access prior knowledge and experiences is crucial for ESOL students
      6. Encourage students to use all their language and knowledge as resources
    3. Cross-cultural Communication and Interaction
      1. Understand families, communities, traditions, and values
      2. Connect prior experiences in formal and informal education
      3. ESOL students need to learn new norms and education expectations
        1. teacher roles and student roles
      4. Teacher education needs to prepare teachers to help students make the transition
    4. Learning Styles
      1. Various learning style preferences
      2. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
      3. Teachers need to understand all levels of diversity
    5. Making the Connection
      1. Connect Tapestry Homes with schools (Luis Moll)
      2. Draw on funds of knowledge
      3. Use the cultural capital
      4. Use real-life examples
      5. Validate different culture and experiences
    6. Classroom Management
      1. Creating learning communities
      2. Bringing diversity into the classroom
      3. Creating a new culture of schooling
        1. for example: the Kamehameha project in Hawaii
    7. Strategies for Adapting Instructions and Materials
      1. What makes academic texts and instruction complex?
      2. Two interacting continua:
        1. Amount of contextual support
        2. Cognitive complexity of the ideas
        3. Worst case: No context, high complexity
    8. Useful Strategies
      1. Helpful for all students, but particularly for ESOL students
      2. Increase the context / embeddedness / support
        1. Pictures, gestures, visuals
        2. Make abstract concepts concrete with tables and graphs
      3. Demonstrations and experiential learning
      4. Thematic instruction
      5. Project work
      6. Multiple grouping strategies
        1. Cooperative learning
        2. Peer tutoring
    9. Strategies for Reducing Cognitive Complexity
      1. Various tasks and media
      2. Repetition, paraphrasing, summaries, and clarification
        1. Frequent comprehension checks of language and concepts
      3. Focusing attention on important vocabulary
        1. Help students identify what is important
      4. Ways to present information - highlight what is important
        1. Graphic organizers (Venn diagrams, timelines, tree diagrams, semantic maps)
        2. Clarify relationships between ideas
    10. Metacognition and Strategies
      1. Consciously teaching:
        1. Study skills
        2. Higher order thinking skills
        3. Effective strategies (via modeling)
      2. For example:
        1. Guided reading
        2. Journal writing
      3. The goal is to help ESOL students to become aware of strategies, ways of thinking, and study skills
      4. Assigning a variety of written work
    11. Assessment Strategies
      1. Using a variety of assessments to demonstrate what the are understanding
      2. Unmodified standardized tests are unfair for ESOL students
        1. They are still learning the language
        2. Accommodations need to be made for ESOL students
      3. Teachers need to understand possible accommodations
      4. Teachers should be advocates for ESOL students
      5. Assessments need to be modified in the same way as instruction in order to accommodate ESOL student
      6. Give students a chance to demonstrate their knowledge
    12. Assessment Modification
      1. Unless accommodations are made we need to allow students to demonstrate understanding in multiple ways other than just writing
        1. Tell us
        2. Show us
      2. Accommodations during standardized testing
        1. Additional time
        2. Access to bilingual dictionaries
        3. Working in a group
      3. Match testing accommodation to accommodation
  5. Innovative Approaches
    1. Goals
      1. Make it more relevant to changing student population
      2. Better prepare tomorrow's teachers
      3. Help in-service teachers
    2. Pre-Service Teachers
      1. All classrooms are unique; there is no "magic formula"
      2. Prepare students by:
        1. Providing instructional options
        2. Preparing them for different contexts
        3. Encouraging flexible and adaptive practices
    3. Existing Models
      1. Special ESOL segments in traditional courses
      2. Special courses on linguistic, racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity
      3. Diversity infusion
        1. Diversity as a central theme in every course of the program
      4. Bring students closer to ESOL communities
        1. Practical experiences outside the classroom
          1. Early observation
          2. Tutoring
          3. Going out into the community
        2. Immersion experiences
      5. Ethnic Studies or Multicultural Literature as part of core curriculum
      6. Linked courses
      7. Recruiting prospective teachers from minority and ESOL communities
    4. Models for In-service Teachers
      1. Joint/peer observation
      2. Collaborative planning and curriculum development (thematic instruction)
      3. Team teaching
      4. Teacher research/inquiry groups
      5. Graduate courses—extensive professional development for teachers and administrators
    5. Professional Development—Three Projects
      1. Project: We Teach
        1. University - school district partnership
        2. Improve immigrant educational achievement, English literacy, and participation in college
      2. Interdisciplinary language, science, and social studies teacher education course
      3. Project: Leap
        1. University-wide consortium
        2. Working to make core education courses accessible to ESOL students and to improve academic achievement
        3. Prepare teachers to teach ESOL students
    6. Project: We Teach
      1. Five-year project
      2. Collaboration between M.A. ESOL/Bilingual program at UMBC and a very diverse public school district
      3. Goals:
        1. Increase English language literacy and academic achievement of ESOL students
        2. Increase college enrollment
      4. Special focus:
        1. Underschooled children (less than 3 years of prior education)
      5. Teachers had very little preparation for teaching ESOL students
    7. Key Elements of Project: We Teach
      1. Identify teacher needs
      2. Develop graduate courses based on those needs
        1. Teaching Strategies
          1. Co-taught by university and school district faculty
          2. focus on content area teachers
          3. Demonstrations by successful teachers from the district
        2. World-Englishes
          1. Help teachers understand variety within English
          2. Strategies for teaching literacy to students who speak a different variety of English
        3. Teacher Research
    8. Making Connections with the Community
      1. After-school tutoring
      2. Weekend math club
      3. Summer school
      4. Assist content area teachers
      5. Evening parent involvement program
      6. Coteaching
    9. Results
      1. Pre-service teachers felt better prepared for teaching ESOL students
      2. In-service teachers gained new insights
      3. University faculty gained awareness of the realities of today's schools
    10. Interdisciplinary Teacher Education Course
      1. Student diversity in school
      2. Below average math and science scores of ESOL students
      3. Creation of a integrated language, science, and social studies program at SUNY
      4. ESOL teacher candidates learned about math and science curriculum and vice versa
      5. Cooperation between content area teachers and ESOL teachers
        1. Produced sample lessons and activities
        2. Creation of one unit integrating all three disciplines
    11. Innovations Resulting from the Project
      1. New undergraduate course: Language in Science
      2. Activities for Campus Discovery Lab
      3. Newsletter
      4. Workshops
      5. Interdisciplinary course work and fieldwork
      6. Integration across the curriculum and across the levels of schools
    12. Project: Leap
      1. Making core education courses accessible to ESOL Students
      2. At CAL State LA:
        1. 70% of incoming students are ESOL
        2. 80% of them need developmental reading
      3. Pair ESOL instructors with peer group study leaders and content area teachers
        1. Working together to adapt instruction
      4. Adjunct approach
        1. Paired course for ESOL students
        2. Develop activities and modify curriculum
        3. Team teaching
        4. Develop manual
    13. Results
      1. Students were better prepared
        1. Higher scores on exams and better writing
      2. Faculty were better prepared
        1. Many became mentors
        2. Lots of them published about the experience
      3. Project has been extended to other schools
  6. Conclusion
    1. Challenging and Exciting Times for Teacher Preparation
      1. Take the opportunities to learn from each other
      2. Transcend disciplinary boxes
      3. Combine our knowledge
    2. Draw on Existing Knowledge
      1. Form partnerships across disciplines, schools, institutions
      2. Teacher preparation and ESOL permeate our culture and our institutions
      3. Recognize all components in the process:
        1. Today's students
        2. Today's teachers
        3. Tomorrow's teachers
        4. Parents
        5. Community
    3. Recognize Each Other as Resources
      1. Both ESOL teachers and content area teachers are valuable resources
      2. Create integrated language and literacy model across the curriculum
        1. Language is the medium for:
          1. Constructing knowledge
          2. Disseminating knowledge
          3. Demonstrating and understanding knowledge
      3. All of us are language teachers
      4. All of us who are language teachers are also content area teachers
      5. Understanding this double role will help teachers meet the needs of the students