Special Education and ESOL, Dr. Sandra Fradd

Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. Three issues emphasized in this lecture:
      1. Theoretical Perspectives: We need to be aware of how our theoretical perspectives impact what we think children should be able to do.
      2. Importance of Literacy
      3. Instructional Assessment
    2. Phonemic awareness
      "Ability to distinguish different phonemes and the phonemic system of a language. Phonemes are the smallest unit of sound that can distinguish two words. For example in English, pan and fan are different in their initial sound. The Research on first language acquisition is clear that somewhere around age 5 children (actually between ages 4-6) become aware of the individual sound components of words and can segment these. This awareness is in part a natural awareness and in part the emphasis of literacy in making students aware of the language for language sake as opposed to language for communication. However, as anyone who has ever learned another language knows, the sounds are sometimes the most difficult aspect of language to acquire, consider the number of different /u/ sounds of German that most English speakers cannot differentiate. The hearing and the voice production systems are physical as well as mental. The development of these for use with new languages requires both time and instruction." Sandra Fradd
  2. First Case Study: Jonnie
    1. Jonnie
      1. Had no language
      2. Had no need to talk
      3. Was not encouraged to talk and his attempts were punished by his siblings
      4. Had simple vocabularies (e.g. bathroom, lunch, book, etc.)
      5. Made progress (during 1 year): He acquired about 300 words
      6. Was able to match word cards with objects (minimal reading ability)
      7. Avoided writing
      8. Began to understand the relationship between symbol and meaning (minimal literacy)
    2. Timetable
      1. June: He was transferred back to the trainable program.
      2. August: He was expressive, waiving hands, hugging.
      3. October: He was silent and hesitant.
      4. January: He had no interaction.
    3. Jonnie is an icon of many children who
      1. Lack appropriate literacy experiences
      2. Have a mismatch of their ability and others' expectations
      3. Have learning disabilities
      4. Are not provided proper inputs or help
  3. Second Case Study: Eddie
    1. Eddie
      1. Spoke English and Spanish
      2. Was referred to, and later placed in a special education class (learning disability)
      3. Was very engaging when he became engaged
      4. Was very quiet and did not speak much unless prompted
      5. Eddie was certainly able to participate and achieve.
    2. What were the conditions in the classroom that enabled Eddie to be successful?
      1. Bilingual teacher
      2. Inclusion class: non-isolated environment with full range of participation
      3. Parent's expectations
      4. No medical conditions
      5. Teacher's attitude
      6. Hands-on activities
      7. Authentic communications in connection with the contents
      8. Positive expectations
    3. Impact: All of the exceptional students benefited from the environment.
    4. Teachers need to see the literacy development
      1. Not just in terms of forms (writing, spelling, pronunciation, etc.)
      2. But also see the content
      3. What students may know
      4. What students have learned
      5. What students can know
  4. Jonnie and Eddie: Contrasts in Literacy Development
    Jonnie Eddie
    Initially Initially
    No expressive oral language Limited oral communication in English and Spanish (entry one)
    No ability to read or write Formed letters that appeared as English words; organized "writing" with heading and paragraph-like constructions; drew pictures to indicate meaning (entry one)
    After One Year of Instruction After One Year of Instruction
    Two words oral sentences (e.g. Jonnie hungry; big book [entry level two]) Brief oral sentences (exit two) Brief written sentences (entry three with major limitations in form)
  5. Jonnie and Eddie: Contrasts in Opportunities for Literacy Development
    Jonnie Eddie
    Initially Initially
    No support or expectation for communication or literacy development (placement in trainable program; family believed he could not speak) Limited support for literacy development (placement in learning disabilities program)
    No prior experiences with reading or writing Extensive exposure to literacy, but not specific instruction at his developmental level
    One Year Later One Year Later
    Intensive exposure to literacy at his level of development Engaging concrete experiences relating real-world and communication in oral and written modes High motivation and reinforcement for learning in instructional environment Instruction linking concrete experiences with literacy Expectations for participation and achievement Use of English and Spanish in oral instruction Engaging, motivating experiences at his level of language development
    Limited oral communication in English and Spanish (entry one)
    No ability to read or write Formed letters that appeared as English words; organized "writing" with heading and paragraph-like constructions; drew pictures to indicate meaning (entry one)
    After One Year of Instruction After One Year of Instruction
    Two words oral sentences (e.g. Jonnie hungry; big book [entry level two]) Brief oral sentences (exit two) Brief written sentences (entry three with major limitations in form)
  6. Reaching Diverse Students Through Technology
    1. Using technology for ESOL students and children with special needs
      1. Example: Word Processing allows
        1. Developing a monitor for one's own language production
        2. Reflecting on the goal and purpose of the writing
        3. Editing the written product
    2. Learning the Patterns of Language
      1. The ways of teacher's talking as models for the students
      2. Learning the discourse of academic subjects
      3. Bridging the gap between discourses
      4. Example: Multiple languages on the computer
        1. Audio files of different languages
        2. Place value on students' native languages
        3. Demonstrate authentic use of the language of the Internet
        4. Connect students to the authentic speech community of their L1 through Internet
        5. Identity is reaffirmed
    3. Learning the Multiple Ways
      1. LEP students are not penalized for knowing different ways
      2. Different representations/ meanings/ interpretations
    4. Multimedia can
      1. Provide a rich environment for language learning
      2. Contextualize topics through video, audio, text, animation, etc. for ALL students
      3. Provide feedback (why, why not, etc.) for active learning
  7. Literacy Development and Assessment
    1. Special Education Services for ESOL Students: Enabling student to achieve
      1. Supportive teacher
      2. Meaningful literacy experiences
      3. Phonics instruction without penalty for hearing impairment
    2. Benefits of Literacy Development in Special Education
      1. Literacy anchors memory
      2. Literacy as a communication tool
  8. Conclusion: Special Education and ESOL
    1. Understand the second language acquisition process
    2. Realize the power of literacy and not penalizing children who have not developed it
    3. Connect meaning to instruction
      1. In Tapestry Home and school context
      2. With oral and written forms
    4. Use standardized assessment with careful attention to:
      1. Informal assessment
      2. Language format: e.g., narrative
      3. Language function: literacy development accross language functions
    5. Help students monitor their own language development