ESOL Infusion/Resources for Infusion

Language Arts

ESOL Applications and Modifications

To find sample lesson plans : Florida Department of Education's TeachIn web site has teamed up with Gateway to Educational MateralsSM (GEM) in order to meet common goals, to improve the way teachers find materials and resources they need to be the most effective in the classroom.   Check out the sites below to find a sample lesson plan to modify.   You may also use a lesson plan that you have already developed.   The format of the lesson plan does not matter, so you can use any format that you have been given or taught.

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  1. Review the stages of second language acquisition (the Natural Approach) handouts.   Use the four stages and their descriptions to modify for the four levels of English proficiency.
  2. Review the Cummins' Quadrants handouts.   Use this tool to analyze the materials, instruction, and activities/assignments/assessments in terms of their degree of context and cognitive complexity and make adjustments as necessary.  
  3. Remember your two goals for English language learners: 1) Comprehensible instruction; 2) English language development.   The modifications you add to the lesson plan will address both areas.  
  4. Carefully read the lesson plan.
  5. Write your analysis of the lesson according to Cummins' quadrants above the Standards section.
  6. Examine the Sunshine State Standards & Florida Process Standards--can ESOL students at all 4 levels meet the standards if appropriate modifications are made?   If yes, leave as is.   If no, indicate which part cannot be met and suggest an alternative. This lesson's standards can be met by ELL students at the top three levels, but making inferences based on text is not possible for preproduction students.   Therefore, a modification is necessary not only in how they learn and demonstrate the objectives but also in the objective itself.   For language arts standards, the Language Arts through ESOL (1999) guide from the Florida Department of Education can provide ideas.
  7. Evaluate the list of materials.   Are there additional materials that would help an ELL comprehend the topic (e.g., picture dictionaries, bilingual dictionaries, Inspiration concept map, clip art, software, etc.)?   Revisit this list again after modifying for all levels.
  8. Consider the preparation--does the teacher need to prepare additional support for ELL students?   Revisit this again after modifying for all levels.
  9. For each step of the procedure, analyze whether a pre-production student can comprehend the presentation/activity and how the student can be actively involved.

•  Procedure 1--Yes, the visuals will help, but a picture of a cheerleader and a sports team might help the student understand better.  

•  Procedure 2--The pre-production student can follow the cheer chorally.

•  Procedure 3--The pre-production student can watch and pay attention to the words written on the chart paper.  

•  Procedure 4--The pre-production student can point to pictures and answer simple yes/no answers (e.g., point to the penguins, is the penguin happy?--teacher smiles and gestures to get the point across).   

•  Procedure 5--When reading the book, use visuals, props, gestures, etc. to help the pre-production students assign meaning to new words in English (think of the Farsi penguin story).   

•  Procedure 6--Pre-production student can watch and listen.

•  Procedures 7 & 8--Ask the pre-production student to point and act out simple commands.   Show a picture of the judge and show his expression when the class answers the How question.  

•  Procedure 9--Depict predictions graphically on the board.  

•  Procedure 10--List the words on the board and ask students to demonstrate them and/or act them out.

•  Procedure 11--Pre-production student can write new words in her/his journal and look them up in a bilingual dictionary as necessary, The pre-production student can fill in a diagram with pictures and words to indicate the sequence of events.

•  Procedure 12--The assessment must be completely modified for the pre-production student.   See next item for details.

•  For the assessment, consider how the pre-production student can demonstrate what s/he learned from the lesson (i.e., new vocabulary, sequence of a story, etc.) and how s/he can demonstrate alternate ways of meeting the standards (e.g., non-verbally). A pre-production student cannot write a paragraph in English, so a different form of assessment must be provided. A matching form with new words and pictures would be appropriate.   The teacher could also create a story map with blanks left for pictures and vocabulary highlighted in the lesson.   In addition, the map could require students to draw a picture for a word or vice versa, and it could be left open-ended for the student to make a different ending to the story.   Inspiration works well for creating these types of activities.

  1. For the extension activity, careful follow-up with a bilingual aide (if available) can reinforce the concept of predictions/future events in the native language (at the pre-production stage, most of the language used focuses on the here and now to allow comprehensibility, so the future needs to be depicted through diagrams and can be reinforced through native language support when possible).
  2. Repeat steps 6 through 11 for the remaining three levels of proficiency.   Look at the chart with the teacher behaviors, student behaviors, and student modifications for each level and apply it to each step.   Be sure to add tasks that have adequate contextual support, pair and small group interaction, and the appropriate types of questions for each stage.   Increasing the context (for all stages) and the interactivity (especially for students at early production stage and higher) helps comprehensibility as well as language development.
  3. Consider whether students from different cultures would have adequate background knowledge of the topic or if additional context and explanations are necessary.   If additional explanation is necessary, write a cultural objective.   Also, if a cultural topic is mentioned that your ELL could provide information about (e.g., if it is a story about Mexican children and your ELL is from Mexico), write an objective to involve the ELL student and her/his family in explaining the cultural aspect.
  4. Considering the topic and objectives of the lesson and the four levels of English proficiency, write a vocabulary objective followed by a list of vocabulary of focus for ESOL students as well as a linguistic objective for English language learners.
ESOL Modified Lesson

Title: A Tacky Cheer
Cummins' Quadrants: Degree of context--mid to high, degree of cognitive complexity--high

Florida Sunshine State Standards
The student makes connections and inferences based on text and prior knowledge (for example, order of events, possible outcomes).

PP Modification: The student makes connections and inferences based on visuals and/or diagrams and prior knowledge (for example, order of events, possible outcomes).

Florida Process Standards
Critical and Creative Thinkers
04 Florida students use creative thinking skills to generate new ideas, make the best decision, recognize and solve problems through reasoning, interpret symbolic data, and develop efficient techniques for lifelong learning.
Cultural objective (PP, EP, SE, IF):   Students will demonstrate knowledge of the role of cheerleaders in sports.

Vocabulary objective (PP, EP, SE, IF): Students will develop vocabulary related to cheerleading.  

ESOL vocabulary:   cheerleader, pom-pom, cheer, contest, team

Linguistic objective (SE, IF): Students will express predictions in simple oral and written activities using correct vocabulary and syntax.

Would you make a good cheerleader? In this lesson, students will make predictions, copy cheers, and make inferences as they read a story about an odd bird and his awkward attempts to help his fellow penguins win a cheering contest.

Activity Length------------------------------------------------------------------------
30-45 minutes

-            Big book and class set of Three Cheers for Tacky by Helen Lester, New York. Scott, Foresman. 1996

-            Pair of pompoms

-            Chart paper

- (optional) copy of criteria on overhead transparency (in attached file)

ESOL Modifications : props, pictures, picture dictionaries, bilingual dictionaries, Inspiration concept map, clip art, software, ESOL activity handouts

1. If the teacher does not have a pair of pompoms, one can be made using long strips of colored paper. The strips can be collectively folded in half, stapled, and taped to a dowel stick.

2. The teacher should have chart paper attached on a wall or board ready for listing student ideas.

3. The big book and class set of Three Cheers for Tacky should be readily accessible.

4. Students should each have a pencil and a learning log.

5. The teacher may choose to make a copy of the criteria (listed in the attached file) onto an overhead transparency.

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