ESOL Infusion/Resources for Infusion

Language Arts

ESOL Modifications: Prepare handouts for ESOL students

Procedures

  1. Stand in front of the class with a set of pompoms and ask the students if they have ever seen a cheerleader. After brief discussion, perform a simple hello cheer (ex. "H" - pompoms and arms up and stretched out; "E" - pompoms and arms outstretched; "L" - pompoms and arms stretched down and crossed over one another; "L" - pompoms and arms stay down but are crossed the other way; "O" - feet out with one pom up and one pom down.

    PP Modification: T--Show a picture of a cheerleader and a sports team.

  2. Allow one or two students to come to the front of the room while the other students stand up behind their desks to perform the cheer.

    ESOL Modification: None needed. PP students can listen to the cheer and higher-level ELL students can participate chorally, without being singled out.

  3. Pass out the book Three Cheers for Tacky . A big book is located in front of the room for teacher use. After looking at the cover and title, the teacher asks the students to predict what they think the story is about. Some of the student responses are recorded on chart paper. During this time the teacher points out that no prediction is right or wrong.

    ESOL Modification: There is no real way to solicit predictions in English from the PP students, and EP & SE students can listen to the answers and view the corresponding written responses on the chart paper--having the teacher write the responses helps them to focus on key words. IF students can respond and will possibly make syntactic errors.

  4. Once predictions are recorded take a picture walk through the book and record more predictions on the chart. Guided questions, such as -Do the other penguins look happy here?- may assist students in this step. At this point, students are predicting the sequence of events, possible problems, and possible outcomes. Examples of some of the predictions students might make are: -One of the penguins doesn't do anything right.- or -The other penguins don't like him- or -Everyone learned to like the odd penguin in the end.-

    PP Modification: S--Point to the penguin. Q: Is the penguin happy?

    EP Modification: S--What is this? Is the penguin happy or sad? Who has the pom-pom?

    SE Modification: S--How does the penguin feel? What will he do?

    IF Modification: S--Why do you think the penguin will do______? Did the penguin do what you expected to do--why or why not?

  5. Read half of the book and then stop to see if the students want to change their predictions.

    PP Modifications: T--While reading, use pictures, props, and gestures to connect meaning and words. ELL and native speakers role play the events in the story.

    EP, SE, IF Modifications: T--Pair students (ELL and native speakers) and ask them to write in simple form the main actions in the story sequence under a picture of each event. Have them draw another picture and describe it in writing to predict what will happen next.

  6. Allow one or two students to come to the front of the room and imitate the cheers that Tacky tried to do.

    ESOL Modification: None needed. ELL students can observe the native speakers doing the cheer, or higher level ELL students can volunteer to do the cheer as well.

  7. Continue reading until you come to the part that describes the first penguin team cheer in the cheering contest. Ask the class, "How do you think the judges felt about the first team's cheer?"

    PP Modification: S--Point to pictures in book. Act out commands of the story's actions. ELL and native speakers role play the events in the story. T--Show picture of judge and show his expression when the class answers the how question.

  8. Continue the same procedure with each penguin teams' cheer, including Tacky's team.

    PP Modification: S--Point to pictures in book. Act out commands of the story's actions. ELL and native speakers role play the events in the story. T--Show picture of judge and show his expression when the class answers the how question.

  9. Review predictions with the class and discusses the reason Tacky's team was worried in the beginning.

    PP Modification: T--Depict predictions graphically on the board.

    EP, SE, IF Modifications: T--Pair ELL and native speaker students and ask them to write in simple form the main actions in the second half of the story sequence under a picture of each event.

  10. Have the class brainstorm words used to describe some of the feelings and actions of Tacky's team mates and feelings and actions of the judges during the practicing and performance of the cheers.

    PP Modification: T--List the words on the board and ask ELL and native speaker students to demonstrate them and/or act them out.

    EP Modification: S--Label pictures indicating the feelings and actions in the story.

  11. Have the students write a paragraph in their learning logs describing why Tacky's team was worried and how they knew that the judges liked Tacky's cheer and not the cheers of the other penguin teams. They can use some of the words that were listed in the brainstorming step above.

    PP Modification: S--Write new words in journal and look them up in a bilingual dictionary as necessary. Fill in a teacher-made diagram with pictures and words to indicate the sequence of events.

    EP, SE Modifications: T--Pair ELL students and ask them to write in simple form the main actions in the story sequence under a picture of each event. For SE and IF students, ask them to answer the questions by filling in the blanks in simple sentences: Why was Tacky's team worried? I thought Tacky's team was worried because_______________________________. Why did you think that the judges like Tacky's cheer? I thought the judges liked Tacky's cheer because___________________________________________________.

    IF Modification: The student can write a paragraph, but the teacher should expect simpler vocabulary and structures and developmental errors at the sentence level as well as in rhetorical form.

  12. Share the assessment criteria (listed in the attached file) and individually conference with students to provide feedback. The teacher may desire to make a copy of this criteria for students to view on the overhead projector.

    ESOL Modifications: See below

Assessments

As a formative assessment, the students will produce a paragraph in their learning journals whereby they infer how the judges felt about Tacky's cheer and about the other penguin teams' cheers by recalling some of the actions of the judges. They will also discuss the central theme of the story by alluding to the fact that Tacky's team was worried about winning the cheering contest, but that Tacky was too odd or clumsy. This information is shown by using some of the words listed on the board during the brainstorming section of instructions.

The teacher will formatively assess the journal entries for the following criteria:

  • paragraph adequately addresses the central theme by using one or more descriptors from the brainstorming list and listing the action that supports this feeling.

  • paragraph also uses at least two descriptors from the brainstorming list and actions that support inference of the judges feelings for: 1) other penguin teams' cheers, and 2) Tacky's team cheer. (There should be one descriptor for #1, and one for #2)).

  • the entire paragraph should, therefore, contain at least three descriptors from the brainstorming list and two inferences supporting the feelings of judges.

PP Modification: S--Complete a matching form with new words and pictures. Complete a story map with blanks left for pictures and vocabulary highlighted in the lesson. On the map, draw a picture for a word or vice versa, and make a different ending to the story.

EP, SE Modification: S--Complete a fill-in-the-blank handout with the descriptors and brainstorming list words.

IF Modification: S--Use a list of phrases the teacher prepared for expressing inferences to explain the feelings of the judges in a paragraph.

Extensions
For ESOL or ESE students, allow extra time and help from a special education teacher (if possible).

As a follow up activity, students may want to invent a cheer for key vocabulary words or spelling words

PP Modification: For the extension activity, careful follow-up with a bilingual aide (if available) can reinforce the concept of predictions/future events in the native language (at the pre-production stage, most of the language used focuses on the here and now to allow comprehensibility, so the future needs to be depicted through diagrams and can be reinforced through native language support when possible).

EP, SE, IF Modification: Review the book for any complex structures and paraphrase them on a handout. Also check for idioms and give a simple definition with a picture, if possible.

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