Stages of Second Language Acquisition

1st Stage:
2nd Stage:
Early Production
3rd Stage:
Speech Emergence
4th Stage:
Intermediate Fluency
  • 10 hours to 6 months exposure to English
  • language skill--listening (receptive level)
  • BICS development
  • English Vocabulary--500 receptive words
  • 3-6 months to 1 year of English
  • language skill--continued listening mainly
  • BICS development
  • English Vocabulary--1,000 receptive words (10% is expressive.)
  • 1 to 3 years of English
  • Student speaks in phrases and short sentences
  • BICS development
  • English Vocabulary--7,000 receptive words (10% is expressive)
  • 3 to 4 years of English
  • Student engages in dialogue.
  • CALP development
  • English Vocabulary--12,000 receptive words (10% is expressive.)
Sample Student Behaviors
  • "Silent Period"
  • Points to or provides other non-verbal response
  • Responds to commands
Sample Student Behaviors
  • One-word responses
  • Short utterances
Sample Student Behaviors
  • Participates in small group activities
  • Demonstrates comprehension in a variety of ways
Sample Student Behaviors
  • Participates in reading and writing activities to acquire new information
Sample Teacher Behaviors
  • Gestures
  • Language focuses on conveying meanings and vocabulary development
  • Repetition
Sample Teacher Behaviors
  • Asks questions that can be answered by yes/no and either/or responses
  • Models correct responses
Sample Teacher Behaviors
  • Focuses content on keyconcepts
  • Provides frequent comprehension checks
  • Uses expanded vocabulary
  • Uses performance-basedassessment
  • Asks open-ended questions that stimulate language production
Sample Teacher Behaviors
  • Fosters conceptual development and expanded literacy through content
Teaching Strategies
  • 90% teacher talk
  • Total Physical Response (TPR)
  • Modeling
  • Active student involvement
  • Use of pictures
  • Use of realia (concrete items)
  • Simplified language
Teaching Strategies
  • 50-60% teacher talk
  • TPR with responses--Verbal and non-verbal
  • Who, what, where, andeither/or questions
  • Role playing
  • Completing sentences
Teaching Strategies
  • 40% teacher talk
  • Scaffolding and expansion
  • Poetry, songs, chants
  • Predicting
  • Comparing
  • Describing
  • Social interaction (cooperative learning with information gaps)
  • How and why questions
  • Problem solving
  • Group discussion
  • Labeling
  • Listing, charting, graphing
Teaching Strategies
  • 10% teacher talk
  • Essay writing
  • Analyzing charts and graphs
  • More complex problem solving and evaluating
  • Continued with how and why questions--research and support
  • Pre-writing activities--writing process, peer critiquing, etc.
  • Literary analysis
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