At the date of arrival, Rosa
has an informal understanding of vocabulary words in Spanish.For example, some words she knows are “dog” “house”
and “gate”.She had just started kindergarten when her
family moved so she didn’t get the formal vocabulary teaching
from a classroom.When
she lived in Puerto Rico, her family used Spanish in daily life so
she learned words from them, not a teacher.
At this time, Rosa can speak
a little English, but only words like “yes”, “okay” and “hi”.She is unable to carry on a conversation in
English and can only reply with a one-word answer.
Rosa’s vocabulary has increased
a little since she arrived. She now uses words of feeling
such as “happy”, “hungry”, “cold” and “hot”. Her L1 vocabulary
is increasing due to exposure from her older siblings and
parents. She has still not received any formal training in
Spanish. Rosa is only using
what she hears from family members.
Rosa’s L2 vocabulary has
also increased a little, but she is starting to pick up words
from other children and her siblingssuch as “good
morning”, “fine,” and “thank you”. She can reply with two
words now, but still cannot carry on a conversation.
Rosa can start to understand
some words in a social conversation (like when her parents
and siblings ask her questions).
Rosa is observing a tremendous
amount from her classmates.She is now responding in three to four word phrases
like “go to bathroom”, and “drink of water”, but still she
cannot carry on a social conversation with the teacher and
Rosa now understands many
words her parents use in casual conversation. Rosa’s
formal training in Spanish was limited to her time with her
parents and adult family members. Her vocabulary is still
limited because she is getting the two languages mixed up.
Rosa now understands many
words and even slang her peers use in casual conversation.
She is also an active participant in casual conversation with
her siblings and peers.
Type and length of sentences
speak small sentences in Spanish.She is able to communicate with five and six-word sentences
with her friends and family.She has correct word order in her native language.Uses questions and statements correctly.
not understand word order or sentence structure.She is unable to form a sentence in English.
Rosa speaks longer sentences
with maybe 7-9 words in a sentence. She is capable of having
conversations and speaks clearly and correctly.
Rosa still does not understand
word order and is unable to form a complete sentence in her
L2. She attempts to but it is mainly a struggle.
Rosa can now speak with full
and complete sentences in her native language.She is also now able to take part of those social conversations
with her parents and siblings.
Rosa’s incomplete sentences
are a little more understandable.She is starting to understand word order but is still
struggling with it.She is still speaking and responding in phrases.
Rosa is very fluent in informal
conversation at home. However, her parents and siblings are
often correcting her Spanish.
Rosa’s peers can understand
her clearly.For formal
sentences, Rosa is often using “spanglish”
and using Spanish and English interchangeably.
have a problem with negation.She knows when to use the word “no” in conversations.She can ask questions and use the past tense
(informally) in daily conversations.
L2:Stage 1 (No+X).Rosa puts
the word “no” in front of everything.For example, “no cold”.She can understand simple questions in English like,
“What is your name?” as long as there is a one-word reply
what the past tense is in her native language but doesn’t
know how to use it in English.
Rosa is capable of using
negation correctly in Spanish. She can also answer and ask
questions in past tense. She is at stage 4 in her L1.Her fast development of her L1 is due to
the outside tutoring each Sunday.
much trouble with forming questions and answers in past tense.
She is in the middle of stage 1 moving into stage 2, using
no, not and don’t. She can answer simple questions but usually
she can answer 2 word responses.
Rosa definitely does not
have any sort of problem with the use of negation in her native
language.She has progressed with in her stage 4 and
working towards stage 5 already.There is no problem with asking questions and using
past tense correctly.
Rosa is still struggling
with forming her questions.She can make phrases out of them now, like, “You hungry?”She is still having a problem with the use of past
tense.She will add “ed” onto the word when it is
not needed.For example,
she will say,
broked it”.Although she is now in stage two, using no, not, and
don’t, she is struggling with the use of them.For example, “no hungry”.
Rosa has mastered correct
negation.Her increased exposure to Spanish and the
constant corrections from family members has increased her
using correct past tense.
Rosa has not been observed
using “no” before verbs any more than the other children in
her class. Her question formation no longer confuses her peers
however her teachers often correct her questions and verb
tense in her writing.
L1:Proficient in pronunciation of simple words
used in daily life.
L2:Student can only reply with one-word answers.
She finds it difficult to pronounce most English words and
is afraid to say them wrong.Doesn’t communicate in school.
Rosa is able to pronounce
words properly in her native tongue.Again, her fast development of her L1 is
due to the outside tutoring each Sunday
Rosa still cannot pronounce
words in English. She has difficulty with words but can usually
say two or three words. She has started to say a couple of
words here and there to fellow classmates who have become
L1:With the continuous use of her native language
at home, word pronunciation in her native language is not
a problem for her.
Rosa’s friends are helping
her tremendously.Although she is still struggling with the
pronunciation, she has found herself comfortable with trying
to practice the pronunciation of her word responses with her new friends.
Rosa’s parents do not view Rosa
has speaking “proper Spanish.”Rosa is using English
pronunciation of her Spanish language. Rosa
has been found to speak Spanish with the other Hispanic children
in the class but her peers often correct her Spanish pronunciation.
English pronunciation of words is not a problem for Rosa.She makes mistakes that are similar to slang
and go undetected by peers.
speak well with her Spanish friends and family.
communicate well with her classmates.She is going through a “silent period”.She also cannot perform verbal assignments
from the teacher.
Rosa speaks efficiently with
her family and friends.
Rosa is gradually getting
out of the “silent period”. She is now using 3 -4 words with
She has no problems with speaking to her family and friends
in her native language.It
is spoken well.
She is now out of her “silent period” and is trying to respond
to her new friends using phrases.
The adults around Rosa often
make fun of her and pick at her improper use of Spanish. However,
her communication with family and friends is effective in
Rosa is up on the latest
phrases and comments used in schools throughout playground
BICS & CALP
her BICS comfortably with friends and family.Her everyday fluency is apparent.Due to the move, she was not able to develop her CALP
or synthesizing and evaluating abilities.
L2:She is intelligent but cannot apply what she
knows.She has problems
with BICS and has no CALP in English.Her everyday conversations are limited.
Rosa is able to use BICS,
and has no trouble in finding words to express herself.
However, she was not able to develop CALP,
therefore, she still has no ability to do so in L1.
Rosa is starting to use more
words but cannot hold a complete conversation. She will mostly
answer questions with 2-3 words but will rarely initiate a
conversation. This is due to her in ability to form sentences.
Her everyday BICS is as good as it should be.She communicates well with her family and friends in
her native language.She
wasn’t able to develop CALP because of moving to the U.S at
such an early age, and she still has no ability in that area
in her L1.
Rosa’s BICS- She is still
not able to hold a conversation but is responding to questions
in five word phrases.
Rosa’s CALP- Her CALP is growing slowly but she
is still struggling in the classroom.Her teacher is going to fast for Rosa
to understand the majority of what she is trying to teach.
BICS: Rosa is able to comfortable
manipulate conversation in Spanish and has mastered conversational
language. CALP: Rosa has not mastered more complex oral and written modes
BICS: Rosa has mastered pronunciation,
grammar and enough vocabulary to carry on conversations. Normal
face-to face interactions are easy for Rosa.She has also acquired the ability to gain
meaning from gestures, intonation and the situation.
Rosa’s is considerably behind
her peers in the development of her academic language.Her ability to read, use texts and write is below her
peers. It will take a great deal more time for Rosa
to use specialized vocabulary and practice to acquire stronger
prescriptive aspects of English:
an understanding of basic parts of speech (nouns and verbs)
but struggles with adjectives and adverbs.She mostly uses punctuation (like periods and question
marks) correctly.She can write a three-word sentence in Spanish.
problems on when to use singular and plural.Also, she cannot write sentences.
Rosa is becoming more and
more proficient in L1 and has started to write complete sentences
can clearly see how the weekly tutoring is helping her L1.
Rosa cannot write sentences,
but she is able to write words that she knows.
Rosa is able to write a four
sentence paragraph with the efficient use of nouns, verbs,
punctuation, and adjectives (with one or two errors).She is still struggling with her adverbs.
Rosa is able to form a partial
sentence in writing.She
is able to form a three word phrase but is still struggles
with where the nouns and verbs are supposed to be.And since she still cannot form a sentence, she is
still having problems with punctuation.
Rosa’s exposure to formal
written Spanish is limited. Therefore her grammatical structure
is lacking more and more as time goes by.
Rosa can follow a grammar
lesson but unable to produce complete sentences on her own.She struggles with subject verb agreement and verb
tense. She is able to recall appropriate punctuation but often
forgets or misuses it in her writing. Rosa
also has difficulty in using proper “ed”, “s”, and “ing”.